# Correlation coefficients with missing data

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## Correlation coefficients

The correlation coefficient is easy to estimate with the familiar product-moment estimator. It is also straightforward to construct confidence intervals using the variance stabilizing Fisher transformation.

The `corr` function implemented below calculates the estimate and 95% confidence interval of the correlation coefficient:

``````import numpy as np

"""
Perform two approaches for estimation and inference of a Pearson
correlation coefficient in the presence of missing data: complete case
analysis and multiple imputation.
"""

def corr(X, Y):
"""Computes the Pearson correlation coefficient and a 95% confidence
interval based on the data in X and Y."""

r = np.corrcoef(X, Y)[0,1]
f = 0.5*np.log((1+r)/(1-r))
se = 1/np.sqrt(len(X)-3)
ucl = f + 2*se
lcl = f - 2*se

lcl = (np.exp(2*lcl) - 1) / (np.exp(2*lcl) + 1)
ucl = (np.exp(2*ucl) - 1) / (np.exp(2*ucl) + 1)

return r,lcl,ucl
``````

If some data are missing, it is not possible to assess the correlation in the usual way. Here we demonstrate two approaches to assessing the correlation coefficient between two variables in the presence of missing data.

First, we load in a data file in which some values are missing (denoted as "NA"). This file also constains non-numeric row labels, which we process using a converter.

``````## Read a data file with missing values
def convert_id(s):
return float(s.split("-"))

Z = np.genfromtxt("../Data/simple_numpy_na.csv", delimiter=",",
missing_values=["NA",])
``````

## Complete case analysis

A crude approach to handling missing data is "complete case analysis", which involves excluding all cases in which either one or both of the values being correlated are missing.

The calculations for complete case analysis are straightforward:

``````## Complete case analysis

## The indices of cases with no missing values in columns 1 and 2
ii = np.flatnonzero(np.isfinite(Z[:,1:3]).all(1))

## The correlation coefficients for complete case analysis
r,lcl,ucl = corr(Z[ii,1], Z[ii,2])

print "Complete case analysis:"
print "%.2f(%.2f,%.2f)" % (r, lcl, ucl)
``````

## Multiple imputation

Multiple imputation is a technique that allows us to do statistical estimation and inference when there are missing data. It involves imputing complete data sets from a model fit to the observed data, then calculating the statistic of interest on each complete data set. We then use a "combining rule" to obtain an overall estimate and standard error using the results from the imputed data sets. See here for more information.

``````## Use multiple imputation to estimate the correlation coefficient and
## standard error between columns 1 and 2.

## Columns of interest
X = Z[:,1:3]

## Missing data patterns
ioo = np.flatnonzero(np.isfinite(X).all(1))
iom = np.flatnonzero(np.isfinite(X[:,0]) & np.isnan(X[:,1]))
imo = np.flatnonzero(np.isnan(X[:,0]) & np.isfinite(X[:,1]))
imm = np.flatnonzero(np.isnan(X).all(1))

## Complete data
XC = X[ioo,:]

## Number of multiple imputation iterations
nmi = 20

## Do the multiple imputation
F = np.zeros(nmi, dtype=np.float64)
for j in range(nmi):

## Bootstrap the complete data
ii = np.random.randint(0, len(ioo), len(ioo))
XB = XC[ii,:]

## Column-wise means
X_mean = XB.mean(0)

## Column-wise standard deviations
X_sd = XB.std(0)

## Correlation coefficient
r = np.corrcoef(XB.T)[0,1]

## The imputed data
XI = X.copy()

## Impute the completely missing rows
Q = np.random.normal(size=(X.shape,2))
Q[:,1] = r*Q[:,0] + np.sqrt(1 - r**2)*Q[:,1]
Q = Q*X_sd + X_mean
XI[imm,:] = Q[imm,:]

## Impute the rows with missing first column
## using the conditional distribution
va = X_sd**2 - r**2/X_sd**2
XI[imo,0] = r*X[imo,1]*(X_sd/X_sd) +\
np.sqrt(va)*np.random.normal(size=len(imo))

## Impute the rows with missing second column
## using the conditional distribution
va = X_sd**2 - r**2/X_sd**2
XI[iom,1] = r*X[iom,0]*(X_sd/X_sd) +\
np.sqrt(va)*np.random.normal(size=len(iom))

## The correlation coefficient of the imputed data
r = np.corrcoef(XI[:,0], XI[:,1])[0,1]

## The Fisher-transformed correlation coefficient
F[j] = 0.5*np.log((1+r) / (1-r))

## Apply the combining rule, see, e.g.
## http://sites.stat.psu.edu/~jls/mifaq.html#howto
FM = F.mean()
RM = (np.exp(2*FM)-1) / (np.exp(2*FM)+1)
VA = (1 + 1/float(nmi))*F.var() + 1/float(Z.shape-3)
SE = np.sqrt(VA)
LCL,UCL = FM-2*SE,FM+2*SE
LCL = (np.exp(2*LCL)-1) / (np.exp(2*LCL)+1)
UCL = (np.exp(2*UCL)-1) / (np.exp(2*UCL)+1)

print "\nMultiple imputation:"
print "%.2f(%.2f,%.2f)" % (RM, LCL, UCL)
``````