# Basic NumPy examples

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**Contents:**

## Basic examples

We first import numpy and rename it as `np`

, then we load the data
file simple_numpy.csv using the `loadtxt`

function in NumPy.

```
import numpy as np
"""
Demonstrate some array calculations using NumPy.
"""
## Read a csv file as a matrix
X = np.loadtxt("simple_numpy.csv", delimiter=",")
```

The following code demonstrates a number of basic calculations that
can be done on arrays using NumPy.

```
## Print the dimensions of the array X
print "The dimensions of X are:"
print X.shape
## Print the number of values in X that are greater than 10
print "\nThe number of entries of X that exceed 10:"
print (X > 10).sum()
## Print the proportion of values in X that are greater than 10
print "\nThe proportion of all entries of X that exceed 10:"
print (X > 10).mean()
## Print the proportion of values in each column of X that are
## greater than 10
print "\nThe proportion of entries in each column of X that exceed 10:"
print (X > 10).mean(0)
## Select the rows whose mean is greater than 5
rm = X.mean(1)
ii = np.flatnonzero(rm > 5)
Y = X[ii,:]
print "\nThe column medians of X, restricted to rows with mean exceeding 5:"
print np.median(Y, 0)
```

It is commonly needed to reorder the rows of an array so that the
values in one column are sorted. This can be done by using the
`argsort`

method to obtain a vector of indices, then using these
indices to reorder the rows of the array.

```
## Reorder the rows of X so that the row-wise means are increasing
rm = X.mean(1)
ii = np.argsort(rm)
Y = X[ii,:]
print "\nThe first five rows of X when sorted by increasing row mean:"
print Y[0:5,:]
```

If we just want to sort the rows or the columns this can be done as
follows:

```
Y = X.copy()
Y.sort(0) ## Sort within columns
Z = X.copy()
Z.sort(1) ## Sort within rows
```

Proportions can be calculated by taking the mean of a boolean array.

```
## The proportion of the rows of X in which the second column has a
## greater value than the first column
print("\nThe proportion of the rows of X in which the second column has\n"
"a greater value than the first column:")
print (X[:,1] > X[:,0]).mean()
```

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